The electrode in an electrochemical cell where oxidation takes place. During discharge, the negative electrode of the cell is the anode. During charge, the positive electrode is the anode.
Battery or Pack
Technically, two or more electrochemical cells electrically interconnected in an appropriate series/parallel arrangement to provide the required operating voltage and current levels. Frequently, however, the term “battery” is applied to a single cell.
A cylindrical cell design utilizing an internal cylindrical electrode and an external electrode arranged as a sleeve inside the cell container.
The total number of ampere-hours or watt-hours that can be withdrawn from a fully charged cell or battery under specified discharge conditions.
The electrode in an electrochemical cell where reduction takes place. During discharge, the positive electrode of the cell is the cathode. During charge in a rechargeable battery, the negative electrode is the cathode.
The basic electrochemical unit used to generate or store electrical energy.
A battery discharge regime whereby the current drawn during the discharge remains constant.
The battery voltage at which the discharge is terminated. The cutoff voltage is specified by the battery manufacturer and is generally a function of discharge rate.
A cell in which the positive and negative plates are rolled up and placed into a cylindrical container (as opposed to stacking the plates in a prismatic cell design).
The change from chemical energy of a battery into electrical energy, and the withdrawal of the electrical energy into a load.
The rate, usually expressed in amperes, at which electrical current is taken from the battery.
The site, area or location at which electrochemical processes occur.
The medium that transports the ions carrying the charge between the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction in a battery.
The output capability of a cell or battery expressed in watt-hours.
The opposition exhibited by a circuit element (cell or battery) to the flow of an alternating current (A.C.) of a particular frequency as a result of resistance, induction and capacitance.
Internal Resistance (IR)
The opposition exhibited by a circuit element (cell or battery) to the flow of direct current (D.C.). In a cell, the internal resistance is the sum of the ionic and electronic resistances of the cell components.
The maximum current drain under which the particular battery will perform adequately under a continuous drain. The rate is based on whatever drain rate reduces the running voltage to 1.1 volts.
Lithium primary batteries (non-rechargeable) offer high energy density, extremely long shelf life (two to three times that of Alkaline), a wide operating temperature range, and excellent durability. Lithium primaries are available in many chemistries, each with their own particular attributes.
Lithium Manganese Dioxide Battery (LiMnO2)
A primary battery (non-rechargeable), the Lithium Manganese Dioxide battery offers high energy density, reliability and excellent shelf life. Less volatile and less costly than Lithium Sulfur Dioxide, LiMnO2 batteries offer a good balance of performance and safety. Their uses include keyless entry systems and memory back up.
Lithium Thionyl Chloride Battery (LiSOCl2)
A primary battery (non-rechargeable), the Lithium Thionyl Chloride battery has the highest energy density of all Lithium types. Service life is typically 15 to 20 years. These cells are best suited for applications having low continuous-current and moderate pulse-current requirements. Their long service life and low self-discharge rate make them ideally suited for use in harsh or inaccessible environments like utility monitoring and electronic toll collection.
A battery capacity or rating. A battery that provides a current of 1000mAh for one hour is rated at 1000mAh (or 1 Ah).
An electrode or a terminal that has an excess of electrons.
The characteristic operating voltage or rated voltage of a battery.
A measure of electrical resistance that causes one volt to produce a current of one ampere.
The interconnection of cells or batteries where all the like terminals are connected together. This results in increased capacity.
The phenomenon by which a metal, in conditions of thermodynamic instability, remains unattacked because of modified or altered surface conditions.
In electricity, the quality of having two charged poles, one positive and one negative.
A terminal or electrode that has a shortage of electrons.
Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC)
A PTC device protects the cell or battery from external short circuits while allowing it to continue functioning after a short circuit is removed.
A battery which is not intended to be recharged and is discarded when it has delivered all of its electrical energy. (A non-rechargeable battery.)
The positive and negative plates are stacked rather than rolled as done in a cylindrical cell.
A periodic current drain of higher than normal drain rates.
The number of ampere-hours a battery can deliver under specific conditions (for example, rate of discharge, end voltage, temperature). Rated capacity is usually specified by the battery manufacturer.
A safety mechanism designed into a cell that activates under specific conditions of abuse to relieve internal pressure.
The loss of capacity of a battery during storage due to internal chemical action.
The interconnection of cells where the positive terminal of the first is connected to the negative terminal of the second, and so on. This results in increased voltage.
The duration a cell can be kept in storage under specified conditions and still retain its ability to give a specified performance.
An unwanted electrical connection between a negative and positive source. Short circuits can damage the battery and equipment and can cause fire.
An electrode structure of high surface area created by winding the electrodes and separator into a spiral, jelly-roll configuration.
A safety device which senses temperature in a battery and opens or cuts off the electrical circuit if the specified temperature is exceeded, thus preventing a further rise in temperature.
A device at the end of a cell or wire at which a connection to an adjoining cell or wire is established or broken.
A unit of measuring electric potential. Voltage is the difference in electrical energy between two points.
Time delay for a battery to deliver the required operating voltage after it is placed under load.